Happy 2016 Bread Lovers!

Organic whole grain rye and spelt bread with a 28 hour fermentation. And a few Klamath olives for good measure. Savory, nutty, and nutritious!

Hello Fellow Bakers! And Happy (almost) New Year!!

It is this time of year that I try to take deeper breaths amidst the often chaos, and I become more aware of the importance of this. What it does accomplish — is it turns my gratitude practice inward and more solid, as the clarity of what is most important in life becomes beautifully more prominent. That is — more family, more love, more nature, more pausing. And unmistakenly now, more writing is part of this. Yes.  And thus, here I am again. Twice in one month. Somebody give me a cookie.

Or a loaf of bread. Sure it is my mission to teach people to make their own, and I’ve seen dozens and dozens of wonderful pictures, but it would be nice if perhaps one of my students happened to make an extra one week, or even dropped off a few slices one day…

Hint hint. Just kidding…Or am I? 😉 😉 😉

Perhaps it will help if I answered more questions. Afterall, I am well aware of how daunting baking bread can be in the beginning. I remember my crazy first loaves. Not the prettiest. Certainly the densest. Maybe  “brick” is the most appropriate word to describe them. But you just have to keep at it. As Yoda says, “There is no try. Only do.”


Some bread vocabulary explained (in laymen’s or laywomen’s terms)

autolyse: the time after your initial mix of flour and water, before you mix in the wild yeast (starter) and salt. It is between 30 and 60 minutes usually, and is essential for the initial enzymatic activity of the grains.

‘air’ kneading: a phrase that Andrew Whitley (an amazing British baker who wrote Bread Matters) uses to explain the belief that sourdough bread does not need to be kneaded. Ooo, a pun! And Chad Robertson also exemplifies in his book //ws-na.amazon-adsystem.com/widgets/q?ServiceVersion=20070822&OneJS=1&Operation=GetAdHtml&MarketPlace=US&source=ac&ref=tf_til&ad_type=product_link&tracking_id=breadculture-20&marketplace=amazon&region=US&placement=0811870413&asins=0811870413&linkId=A37J2IZDYLLQPJRS&show_border=true&link_opens_in_new_window=true” target=”_blank”>Tartine Bread that dough can simply be given ‘folds’ every 30 minutes or so during the initial rise.

retard: aka ‘bulk fermentation’: this step occurs in your refrigerator. After your initial rise and shaping (after 3-4 hours), you place the dough in the fridge for a minimum of 8 hours to a max of 28. I have found that my sweet spot tends to be around 16-24 hours, but everyone’s fridge will have a slightly different temp, so find what is best for you. It is during this stage that the wild yeast interacts slowly with the enzymatic activity of the whole grain flour, water, and salt. In my opinion, this is where the bread develops the ability to be considered probiotic and more easily digested, so please don’t shorter this process. 24 hours is ideal — 8 is the minimum and over 28, your bread may be overproofed or spoiled.

proofing: the ‘final rise’ of your dough after it has spent time ‘retarding’ or ‘fermenting’ in the fridge. This is the hour or two when the dough sits on the counter, rising, getting closer to room temp, before it is placed in a Dutch oven or on a pizza stone for baking.

over-proofing: oh, if I had a nickel for every time I overproofed a loaf when I first started baking, well…Let’s just say it happens to the best of us  especially when we are just beginning to learn how to bake bread. There is a particular test that many bakers use to determine if their bread is over- or under-proofed.

  1. Poke the dough after it’s finished its bulk fermentation or retarding in the fridge. If the dough leaps back at your finger, it is likely underproofed (meaning it didn’t have enough counter time during the initial rise.
  2. Poke the dough: if it stays indented and doesn’t bounce back, it is likely overproofed. Meaning — you let it go too long on the counter initially or in the fridge. You can still try to bake it, but it probably won’t have any oven spring.
  3. Poke the dough: perfectly proofed: you poke the dough and it slowly and steadily rises back to meet your finger. Well done, baker!

I sincerely hope that these vocab terms and tips were helpful. Thank you for reading my blog this past year. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to comment below. You know I always love hearing from you! I am greatly looking forward to seeing what Bread Culture has in store for 2016!

This is me outside of the famous Amy’s Bread in NYC. She is a great inspiration to me and I am thrilled I was finally able to try her bread!





Bread Meets Balance

Hello my fellow bakers. The last few months of been a whirlwind for me.  By Midsummer I was teaching several bread classes each month, building a busy acupuncture and Chinese medicine practice, baking 20 loaves of bread per week in my home kitchen. And loving it. Then one day I thought to myself “why not try a farmers market?”  So I called our local farmers market, the one that Kevin and I go to nearly every Sunday. I did not anticipate how quickly it would all happen. They were intrigued that I had my cottage food license, that I baked from my home kitchen, and after I handed them some samples, the next day they called me to ask when I wanted to start. I just kept saying yes to everything.  Yes to more mixing. Yes to more baking. Yes to more phone calls requesting more and more bread. Yes to more lifting dozens of cast iron pans in and out of oven. Yes to 50 plus loaves per week. By myself. Yes too more patients wanting Acupuncture. Yes to bread deliveries. Yes to EVERYTHING.

People kept asking me “how are you doing this Mary?  Aren’t you just exhausted all the time?” And it wasn’t until several months in that I started really wondering if I was paying enough attention to my own needs and the needs of my family. My bread mission is so strong and is filled with a lot of love and grace, and it strives for goodness 100% of the time. Despite all of this, my body started to tell me that I was out of balance.   I started feeling palpitations, fluttering, weird heart stuff. And I was incredibly exhausted. As a physician, I was fully capable of knowing that if I were my own patient, I would have told myself to slow down three months before. But I just kept pushing through it. After all, was not the love of baking enough? Wouldn’t I find the energy? People were wanting to know, to buy whole grain bread, and to learn how to bake it…why shouldn’t I be the one to teach them? To inspire and empower them?

Fast forward a few weeks later:  I ended up in the hospital. For several days. They did diagnose me with a heart condition, and are testing me for several different possible causes. And although it was terrifying when it happened and I am still trying to piece everything together and wonder how this might change my life. I feel OK about it. I am conscious of acknowledging the fact that everything happens for a reason. Maybe it’s time to slow down a bit, to consider hiring someone and getting some help. To teach and not to bake 50 loaves in 12 hours (yes, I was doing that!).

On my really good days, I know the pause is not an end. It’s just to take a breather.

The whole reason why I am telling  you this, is that I hope my story may influence some of you out there who are pushing the physical limits of your energy. Life is too short, my friends. We need to take of ourselves. I practice a medicine that is based on ancient principles of Yin and Yang, and the striving for balance in all aspects of life. I teach my patients this, I meditate on this daily. I was not practicing what I preach. I know this now.

When I was in school, we studied many ancient Chinese medical texts. One certainly had the greatest spiritual influence on me, and although I have lost track of it through the years, it has come back full circle once again as things do and is helping me heal. It’s the Tao Te Ching, written by Lao Tzu, a Chinese prophet. One short phrase continues to inspire me now each day: “Retire when the work is done. This is the way of heaven.” Simple to some, but not for this non-stopper. Although it will be challenging, I think I may heed his advice for awhile and see how the future unfolds. Rest. Work a little. Rest again. Maybe these pauses will give me the opportunity to write more. That is something I have missed.  Maybe a commercial kitchen space with an actual proper bread oven will present itself to me, equipped with one or two incredibly assistants. Maybe I will just teach people how to bake bread for awhile and focus on helping my patients heal.

Maybe all of this. Maybe none of it. Ever still, the importance of the pause is a very real, essential practice. And I am being reminded of this now more than ever before. I hope some of you read this and understand, and maybe allow yourself a breather too.  After all, it is essential for health, balance, and vitality. Just like I always say, real bread takes time. Well, so do we! So does healing. We have been taught to think that if we get a cold, we go to the doctor, and get medicine that will just make us better immediately. When in reality, the true complete healing can sometimes take longer than we ever anticipated. This is so hard for many of us. Including me. But it is also that much more profound when we are able to look back and see that the work we have done to heal ourselves, that the time we spent gracefully caring for ourselves, well, it was ALL worth it.

So, go ahead: give yourself permission to do absolutely nothing. In that stillness is where you will find the answer. 

The A through Z of Whole Grains

Rye meets Teff

Hello fellow bakers and curious folk! 

Lately I found that when I am teaching new friends how to bake bread, many people are asking great questions about varying grains. They want to know what makes the best bread; or what variety of wheat is lightest in texture, while still remaining true to it’s whole grain nature. Another discussion that continues to peak people’s interest is what kind of whole grain makes the best bread, and what is the nutritional breakdown of each?

During the class I explain the differences, but I thought I would share my knowledge with the rest of my fellow bakers out there. Or at least, give you the low-down of what I’ve discovered through my research and thousands of test-bakes.

Let’s start with my favorite grain: RYE

Even though Rye can be incredibly sticky to mix, it is by far one of the most nutritious grains out there. It is highest in insoluble fiber, which means that it can assist a healthier and more regular digestion. Insoluble fiber helps regulate digestion, and it also helps the body maintain its normal Ph level (acidity to alkaline ratio). It is said that rye also contains some trace amounts of soluble fiber as well; making it extra keen at regulating blood sugar in our body. This is why it is often safe for those who are pre-diabetic and diabetic to eat rye. The bulk fiber does not spike the blood sugar, which is also an added bonus for those of us who are afraid of eating bread bc of possible weight gain. Rye bread can actually help one lose weight, since its natural fiber makes one feel full after just a slice or two.

Rye also contains half the amount of gluten that wheat does. Even when commercially milled, the rye grain still stays more nutritious than wheat flour, because unlike wheat’s endosperm (bulk of the grain kernel), rye’s endosperm is full of fiber, and minimal starch.

So so try it out for yourself. Don’t be intimidated by its stickiness at first like I was. Trust me, it’s worth it.


Contrary to popular belief, Spelt is indeed a wheat variety. It originated in Iran, as a cross-breed to emmer (another grass-like grain). It is higher in protein, but not gluten protein. More specifically, it does not contain gliadin protein. This is the more specific type of gluten protein that many people supposedly have a hard time digesting. But you know how I really feel about gluten. If you’re new to the site, I invite you to read my thoughts on the matter HERE. Taste-wise spelt is nuttier than most grains, and super delicious with figs and fresh goat cheese. Yum.

Spelt Yin & Yang


Teff is the smallest grain in the world, and it’s also the national grain of Ethiopia and Eritrea. If you’re ever had Ethiopean food, you probably used their incredible injera bread in lieu of utensils. It’s super sour because they ferment their injera for up to 48 hours. I’m getting hungry just thinking about it. It’s naturally sweet and loaded with iron and calcium. I often prescribe my iron-deficient or osteo-arthritic patients a teff loaf each week. It’s also great for new mama’s post-partum. It really supports the blood in our systems. Another sweet fact is that despite its tiny size, you can sow an entire field of teff with just a handful of seeds. That’s magic.


In Chinese Medicine, buckwheat (a fruit seed, not a grain) is seen as neutral and sweet by nature, and incredibly rich in amino acids. Particularly it is rich in lysine, a particular protein that is lacking in most grains, and is specifically helpful in preventing cardiovascular disease. Buckwheat is also excellent for deterring diarrhea and dysentery. It helps calm the digestive tract, and reduce inflammation.


Einkorn has made the news a lot lately because people are convinced that it is more easily digested, despite the fact that it contains gluten. Most people believe this to be because the grain itself is impossible to hybridize. Meaning — the grain kernel cannot be broken apart in commercial milling. So all of the parts of the grain (the bran, the germ, and the endosperm) are milled together and not seperated, like they are in commercial milling. Because that is how Mother Nature intended it. This makes einkorn chockfull of vitamins and minerals that many wheat strains are missing. It’s also very special because the original strain of einkorn is over 10,000 years old, making it on of the oldest strains of wheat. It is not grown often in the states, but is becoming more popular. Italy has grown einkorn for years, and now a lot of bakers are importing it from there (or just ordering it from Amazon — Jovial is the brand name). It is naturally buttery, soft, and almost cream-colored. It’s color is due in part to the fact that it is high in beta-carotene. It is also high in protein, magnesium, manganese, and potassium, proving it very nutrient-dense. Try it out for yourself. You won’t be disappointed!

Einkorn Sandwich Loaf


With all the anti-wheat parties that are happening right now, it is difficult to even think about how whole wheat can be healthy for us. But trust me, it can. And I know this from experience. I know this because I used myself as a wheat-eating guinea pig for several years now, after having swore it off before my experimenting phase. In Chinese Medicine, whole wheat kernel (or fu xiao mai) is an herb that is used frequently for menopausal symptoms including night sweats, for insomnia, and for calming the spirit.

There  are two main classifications for wheat: hard and soft. The harder the wheat, the higher the protein content. Within these two classifications, there are specific categories: winter wheat and spring wheat.

– Hard winter red wheat: about 40% of the wheat grown in the US is this wheat. It is moderately high in protein (about 10.5%),  so it is prime all-purpose flour.

– Hard spring red wheat: this wheat is highest in protein (about 13.5%) and therefore, makes incredibly great bread! It is most grown in the northern states and Canada.

– Hard winter white wheat: only about 1% of the wheat grown in the US. When you read “white wheat,” those of us who are health conscious cringe a little bit. But not to fear! I’ve worked with organic whole winter white wheat and was amazed at the results. It is still whole grain, so it does maintain all three parts of the entire grain when milled (the bran, the germ, and the endosperm). The “white bread” that has plagued our nation since the Industrial Revolution is bleached and primarily composed of the endosperm. Alone, the endosperm only contains starch and some proteins. Unlike the bran and germ, it does not have many vitamins or minerals to make it healthy for us.

-Soft winter red wheat: grown primarily in Ohio, this wheat is particularly best for pastries, cakes, and cookies. It is lower in protein, and therefore not ideal for baking bread. It also has a particularly mild flavor.

Whole Wheat Boule


I want to share with you one of the best 20 minute speeches I have ever heard. I know I am whole grain obsessed and biased, but I think you too will learn a lot from his talk. It’s Michael Pollan, the wonderful writer of In Defense of Food and The Omnivore’s Dilemma, to name a few. I think I have watched it ten times, if not twenty! I hope it inspires you as much as it does me! Please click HERE to view.

So there you have it. There are many more varieties of grains, but I have baked many loaves of bread with a combination of those above and have been very successful. They are highly nutritious, tasty, and with a long fermentation, are chockfull of pre and probiotics. Real bread takes time. But it is worth it. Your body will thank you!

Say YES to Gluten!

Hello Friends and Fellow Bakers! I have been lucky enough to teach several bread classes this month, for both little kids and big kids alike. And one comment that a student said keeps playing over and over in my head. She is 14 years old, super bright, and very astute. She totally took me by surprise when she asked me: “Well, Mary, if there are all of these books out there that talk about why gluten is so terrible for us, and why we should avoid it, where is your book countering the argument?”

Huh? Sigh… Blurp…


She nailed it. For over a year now I have been talking and teaching and talking some more about why I think that fermented breads are actually healthy for you. Why after years of swearing I would never touch gluten again, I am praising it now, eating it everyday, and all the more healthy because of it. And let me just add: I am not eating commercial breads. I still get a belly ache when I do so. I am eating breads that have been fermented for nearly 24 hours, that are made with freshly milled, organic grain. So basically my 14 year old student brings up a good point. 

Why should one eat gluten or grains when it feels like every doctor, lawyer, neighbor, friend of a friend, mentor, and stranger says to avoid it? 


Well, huh. That is a very good question. I wanted to know the answer to this myself. So what did I do? Well, let’s just say I used myself as a guinea pig. I started mixing dough, taking little bites of bread, waited, scared for the stomach pain to start…but with my bread — it never did. I took one or two classes, stayed up all hours of the night watching “how-to” videos on youtube, and asked tons of questions. I also started writing this blog to help me uncover some answers. I have spent over 18 months getting to the bottom of the gluten conundrum. And the challenge keeps me on my toes, to say the least. 

There felt like so many sides to the story. The Paleo-folk steer clear of any and all grains; professors of mine in grad school claimed that eating bread (and grains) would amplify any inflammation in arthritic patients. Others claim that Alzheimer’s Disease can be link to overconsumption of wheat products.  And the list didn’t stop there. Millions of Americans were going “gluten-free,” because of “gluten-fear.”

I was curious about all the books swirling around on the subject. It seemed like every person I met or patient I saw in the clinic was reading them. Here’s a few quotes:

Dr. Mark Hyman, author of The Blood Sugar Solution: “This new modern wheat may look like wheat, but it is different in three important ways that all drive obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, dementia and more. It contains a super starch, amylopectin A, that is super fattening, a form of super gluten that is super inflammatory, and [acts like] a super drug that is super addictive and makes you crave and eat more”.

Neurologist Dr. David Permutter, author of Grain Brain: “The problem with gluten is far more serious than anyone ever imagined. Modern…structurally modified, hybridized grains contain gluten that’s less tolerable than the gluten that was found in grains cultivated just a few decades ago”.

Dr. William Davis, author of Wheat Belly: “This thing being sold to us called wheat is this stocky little high-yield plant, a distant relative of the wheat our mothers used to bake muffins, biochemically light-years removed from the wheat of just 40 years ago.”

But what kept popping back up for me, and as you can obviously read, was the fact that none of these writers were saying that the wheat that was eaten thousands of years ago, nor even decades ago before the industrial revolution was actually bad for you. Quite the opposite. They all reiterated the notion that modern wheat was the culprit for so many disorders and disease.


So many people took this information and just stopped eating wheat or gluten entirely. They turned a cheek towards any and all grains. But what about the good ones? I know I did the same as so many other folks did. I turned the other cheek from bread for years. I ate rice, because it was gluten free. I ate gluten free bread, because it meant I could still have “toast” in the morning. But the reality is that gluten free breads really have no nutritional content. Ziltch. They are made with rice meal, which is basically the scraps from the rice grain. And I wondered why I had no energy. Why my hair was falling out. Why all my clothes were falling off. 

Because the food I was eating was lacking the proper amount of vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates that my body needed to be healthy.

Please don’t get me wrong. Some people prefer not to eat grains or wheat, and I respect that. Two percent of the American population has Celiac Disease, and as a physician, I realize the severity of the auto-immune disease. But if the general public is following a gluten-free diet for the sake of believing that grains on the whole are “bad for you,” well then I have news for you.

Cue Dancing Wheat Berry! This is soooo not true! And I know this because of how much better I feel after eating them this past year. How much stronger my digestion is. How much more energy I have, stamina, heck, even my memory is stronger. And many of my patients who swore off grains buy my bread every week, and have no problems digesting it. They do not get abdominal pain from it. Nor does their skin break out in a rash, or do they get a headache. Why several of my patients with hypothyroidism feel distinctively better when eating my bread each week. Many of them claim that they can actually see a difference in the way they feel if they skip a week off of my bread for one reason or another. 

So — if there is all of these reputable writers and doctors claiming that gluten and wheat are problematic, why aren’t more people recognizing that it has to do more succinctly with the PROCESS by which the wheat is made into bread. And the TYPE of grain that is being used to make commercial breads. Why why why?!?

Many of you are probably wondering why my bread is so different? What makes my bread a supposed “healthy” and “healing” one, whilst other breads that claim to be whole grain do not have the same effect?

It’s all in the process. Real bread takes time. The breads we see on commercial shelves were made with modern wheat that is unrecognizable to our digestive tracts. So when we ingest this fake bread, our bodies do not recognize it, thus igniting an immune response. That is when many of us get sick or feel horrible because of it. Contrary to what most people think, modern wheat is not genetically modified (yet), but it is heavily sprayed with glyphosate (and other herbicides) as a drying agent, and the cows that graze on many of these farms are fed with genetically modified corn and soybeans; therefore we are ultimately ingesting a small portion of gmo’s when we eat this wheat as well. Herbicides also inhibit our endocrine systems, thus preventing normal hormone distribution in the body. By using organic grains, we can keep our bodies healthier. Fermented grains also have a lower glycemic index, reducing the normal blood sugar spikes that commercial breads deliver.

More and more research on all of this information is occurring today. I hope to stage some of my own research studies in the near future.


Bread is the staff of life. Is this really okay to be feeding our families, our children, that which we call “bread” in this country? No, it certainly is not. This is why I am on a mission. A bread mission. One that is filled with love and not animosity. One that is filled with vital information, but it is also filled with my own personal healing and triumph. Nothing makes me happier than to teach someone about the importance of breaking healthy bread with one another. People deserve to know where their food is coming from, and what methods it underwent to get to the table where it is being served.

Many people call gluten-free a fad diet. But I ask you to thoroughly evaluate the nutritional breakdown of that diet and see if you and your family may be missing any valuable nutrients. 1. Whole wheat, spelt, rye, teff, einkorn….All of these grains are incredibly nutrient dense, and offer many b vitamins, insoluble fiber, iron, and calcium. Each and every grain here, if left in its intact form has enough energy in it to feed all of us, if given the proper time it needs to be freshly mixed, fermented, and proved. The nutrition is inherent in the grains themselves; not because they have been fortified with synthetic vitamins. 2. It also needs to be made with wild yeast, not commercial yeast. The reason being that wild yeast in its natural form is full of lactobacillus, and many other pro-biotic bacteria. As human beings, we are made up of billions of bacteria, and we need to replenish our digestive tract every day with healthy bacteria. This is what makes a happy and healthy digestion! Trust me, I know this from experience. As a child, I took at least 15 antibiotics before the age of 16, and one of them being tetracycline for acne for one whole year. No wonder my intestinal tract was not thrilled years later. Antibiotics, although very helpful and necessary in many situations can do a number on your gut flora. 


wheat kernals

The bread I make and digest every week has healed me. No joke. I feel like I could put on a gown and preach it or go and sing it from the mountains! If I skip a week, I can feel it. I’m not saying that I’m 100% better. I still cannot and knowingly will not eat commercial breads. If I do, I don’t feel well. But I certainly do not have the bloating, pain, and diarrhea (sorry, TMI) that I used to. Thanks to the freshly milled, whole grain, organic, wild-yeasted bread that I make, I can enjoy life more fully than I used to.

Should not you and your family have the same chance at wellness?  Shouldn’t you be able to sit across the dining room table from one another, and break bread that is healing and sustaining, rich with nutrition?

  wheat stalks

The 101 on Baking Bread, Revised

rye pic

Hi Fellow Bakers! I write today to share my most updated basic bread recipe with you. Since I have been teaching people how to bake bread in the last month, I am filled with joy, first and foremost, but I am also realizing that your average breadbook can be a bit intimidating for a new baker. So — I hope this helps you to just dive on in! It truly is not as challenging as it seems. As my students say, you just have to get your feet wet. Then you are that much closer to having freshly baked, nutritious bread for you and your family. And this is bringing me one step closer to my ultimate goal: blocks upon block of households oozing with that fresh baked bread smell. That just makes life a little bit sweeter, doesn’t it?

BREAD CULTURE The 101 on Baking Bread

I have tried my darndest to make it as easy as possible. And trust me from many loaves of experience, it is far easier to just dig in and get elbow deep in dough, than to get intimidated by the measurements, percentages, and what not. I mean — do we not find the most JOY when we are in the moment, experiencing things first hand? HAVE FUN! And I am here for you, should you have questions. 😉

There are only four ingredients: FLOUR, WATER, YEAST, and SALT. That’s a beautiful thing. Here’s the abbreviated recipe for two loaves of bread. If you want one, just cut it in half — but really, who wants one loaf when you can give another to a friend, and then they will be inspired to try to bake their own bread and it will change the world!

INGREDIENT                         QUANTITY                    BAKER’S PERCENTAGE

water                                         800 grams                      80% (hydration)

whole grain flour                    1000 grams                     100%

wild yeast                                 200 grams                       20%

salt                                             25-30 grams                   2.5-3%

1. Grab your metal bowl or plastic (BPA-free) Cambro container (Smart & Final, $15), and your digital scale (Amazon, $30). Measure 800 grams of water into the container. Reset scale back to 0 grams and add 1,000 grams of whole grain, organic flour. MIX with your hands until you cannot see any more dry flour. If your grains are extra thirsty, give them a little more water. You will get used to how much water your flour needs after a few test rounds. Cover your container with a cloth or place a lid on top (not airtight). Let the flour and water mingle. This is called the AUTOLYSE. This is when all the enzymes get to know eachother before the yeast and salt are added. Do not skip this step. Real bread takes time. You will have better bread by giving the dough 20-30 mins to hang out.

2. After your 20-30 mins is up, place the container back on the scale and add 200 grams of wild yeast (refer to my website post Wild, Wild Yeast to learn how to make your own yeast/starter/leaven) and 25-30 grams of salt (that’s up to you). Get in there with your paws and mix all together rigorously for up to 5 minutes. This is the only time you will knead the dough. After the 5 minutes is over, massage your tired arms, and place the lid or cloth back on the container. Now, the initial proofing time occurs.

3. Leave the container on the counter for up to 4 hours (if it is over 90 degrees in your house, make it more like 3 hours). If you are home and able to “do folds,” gently lift the sides of the dough up and onto itself on all sides every 30 minutes or so. If you need to run errands, don’t worry about the folds. Just do one before you put it in the fridge for the bulk fermentation.

4. Bulk fermentation: after the proofing stage is over, you can either shape the dough now and place it in your brown-rice lined banneton and into the fridge for up to 24 hours, or you can leave it in the container and shape it when it’s cold hours later. I usually do the later, but every baker has their preference. So — leave it in the fridge for up to 24 hours. This is where the real magic happens. The dough is allowed to slow down it’s natural enzymatic activity, and this is where the nutritional boost occurs. As I always say, “real bread takes time.” This fermentation allows the bread to become pro-biotic in a sense, since the lactobacillus bacteria in the yeast is interacting with the enzymes and minerals in the flour. Good stuff!

5. After up to 24 hours (but not less than 13 hours), take the dough out of the fridge and let it rise (either in the container or banneton) for up for 2 hours, or until it comes close to room temp. At the same time, PREHEAT THE OVEN TO 485 DEGREES with the Combo Cooker or Dutch Oven inside (Amazon, $40-$60). Every oven is different, so you will have to determine the “sweet spot.”

6. Shaping: You can shape it when it is cold, that can be easier for many of us beginners. Use your dough spatula and bench knife (Amazon, $5 and $8) to cut the dough in half to create to circles with your hands. You can use a little rice flour or non-gmo cornmeal on your hands and sprinkle on the countertop to prevent stickiness. Once you have shaped the two boules into two circles, you are ready to bake!

7. Take the pre-heated Combo Cookers out of the oven (don’t forget your mitts! Those puppies are hot!), sprinkle them with rice flour or cornmeal (prevents dough sticking more than regular flour), place boules into the combo cookers.

8. Score your loaves! Using a bread scorer (Amazon, $8), razor, or sharp knife, slice the top of the dough at a 45 degree angle several times. This allows the dough to breathe, to get the most oven spring,and prevents dough blowout. Sprinkle the dough with brown rice or cornmeal.

9. Place combo cookers in the oven and set timer for 30 minutes. After the 30 minutes is up, take the lids off the combo cookers, lower the temp to 460 degrees, and place timer for 22 minutes. After the 22 minutes are up, check to see if the crust is browned enough, and if not, give it a few more minutes. Then put those oven mitts on, take those beautiful loaves of bread out of the oven, wait at least an hour to break into those beauties! I know, I know, that is so annoying. But it is important to remember — the bread is still cooking once it comes out of the oven, so it needs time to cool down. Trust
me, I know from experience, that eating hot bread is delicious, but can give you a not-so-fun belly ache. It is worth waiting for! Some professional bakers say it is best to eat leavened bread the next day for the most flavor!

To store your bread: leave it on the counter, wrapped in a cloth or placed in a paper bag. It has a shelf-life of about 3 days, so if you won’t eat it that fast, you can slice it first and then freeze it. Then, take it out, let it thaw for a bit, lightly toast, and ENJOY! There you have it, friends!! I wish you all the success and luck in baking your own bread at home. We deserve to know where our food comes from, to eat the healthiest grains possible, and to have more energy because of it. And the other best part is that you get to share it with your loved ones and community. Isn’t that what life is all about?! If you have questions, please don’t hesitate to email me: cultureyourbread@gmail.com.

Love and Real Bread,



When my niece Lily was about 5 years old, she had a favorite phrase: “Face Your Fear.” No one knew where it came from, but she would repeat it over and over again, as 5 year-olds do, and we would all just burst into laughter, hugging her and smiling. At the time no one really stopped to realize just how incredibly wise she was.

I’ve been thinking about Lily and her phrase lately. She is 17, and applying for college, both an exciting and often fear-provoking task. And I am in the midst of starting two businesses at the same time: 1. my Eastern Medicine and Acupuncture Practice, and 2. Bread Culture as an LLC and full operating bread-teaching service. We both are at the forefront of change.

I am coming clean and being totally honest with you folks — I have a lot of fear surrounding both. All the what-if’s seem to be upfront and center, blocking my view of potential greatness sometimes. Dozens of
questions come up each day, how will I… But then I remember Lily at such an innocent and adorable age, reminding us grown-ups to go for our dreams, to trust the process, and to be vulnerable and courageous in the face of fear. Talk about wisdom!

My missions are strong. They are both rooted in helping others, so I know in my heart that they will inevitably succeed, but putting all fears aside is challenging. I’ve been listening to/reading all kinds of business media stuff lately: bread-talks, entrepreneur podcasts, business documentaries, and they all seem to have one common theme: their greater mission far surpassed all obstacles and “failures” along the way. And sure, they failed. We all do. It just makes us one step closer to realizing success. They were determined like it was nobody’s business. They didn’t take no for an answer, and they surrounded themselves with people who supported them and believed in them.

I think I can…I think I can…I think I can…

My dreams for Bread Culture are huge. I am fully determined to help all of us who want better food in this country, to take matters into our own hands (literally), and start baking! I have visions of a massive bread class in Times Square. It is filled with thousands of cambro containers, dough wands, and bread scrapers. People are elbow deep in dough, and they are smiling and sharing words with their neighbors. They are mixing whole grains in that container. Whole-organic-grains that have just been milled very recently into flour. They are sharing life stories with their neighbor, and that night they will go to their homes, place the dough in their own refrigerator, and wake up the next morning to bake it — themselves. In their own oven. Then they will break it with someone they love.

We deserve the right to know where our food comes from. What the farm was sprayed with or not sprayed with. How many thousands of hours of work the farmer put in that soil, come rain or shine. How those bubbles were created in the wild yeast we used to help the dough get its proper rise. How many hours bread needs to develop. I mean, heck, we all need time to rise, no? Poke a hole in me and I’m not ready at 6am!

So I invite you all to do the same. What is it that drives you? That one thing that keeps popping back into your head when you least expect it, hounding you (in a good way). I challenge you to go out and do it. To face your fear. After all, as Nelson Mandela put it so eloquently:

“There is no passion to be found playing small — in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living.”

I think Mr. Mandela and Lily would have been friends.

lily bread pic

Channeling Chad

Hello Fellow Bread Bakers!

Lately I have been changing up my bread tempo, so to speak, and I wanted to share these thoughts with all of you dough lovers out there. I find that my baking style is different the last few months. I am not sure if it is because I am baking more, or using different grains, or got a new oven, or travelled to Japan and ate a (heck of a lot) different bread over there (seriously, it’s an incredible country. If it isn’t in your top 5 places in the world to visit, I seriously recommend rethinking your list). Obviously, there are a lot of factors. One thing I am sure of is that I am happy with the process. The end result isn’t always great, to be honest I get frustrated more lately, but I suppose that’s why I keep on trying.

I mean…isn’t that what Chad Robertson must have done when he started out? Oh yeah, it must be! I can just imagine him in his kitchen at home, playing with dough, and texture, and hydration percentages. He couldn’t have had everything perfect from the get-go, right?! Ugh. I hope not. Because if he did that means that I have a looooonnnnnngggg way to go, my friends.

Perhaps it will help if I get the weaknesses out on paper…errr, text. That way, it is all out in front of me, and I’m not holding it all in. Repression in baking is never a good strategy. Out with the old, in with the new. If any of you bakers out there have any tips or words of wisdom for me, I am all ears!

Scenario #1: I just ended a 4 hour initial proofing, and into the fridge they go for the night (a total of 17 hour ferment usually or more). In the morning, I take them out and let the loaves rise for upwards of an hour while my oven is pre-heating, combo cooker as well, to 590 degrees. I shape the loaves after an hour, dust my combo cookers with rice flour, place the boules into the cookers, and score them. I then place these loaves into the oven for 29 minutes. After the initial minutes are over, I take the lids off of the combo cookers, lower the oven temp to 475, and set the timer for 30 minutes. Usually I get an extra crispy (sometimes too brown crust), but the inside can sometimes be too moist. This is conundrum number 1. Tastes unbelievable, but my customers are often frustrated that the center could be slightly more cooked and the outside less crisp.

What would Chad say? After searching through a mound of Tartine books, or The Gospel According to Chad, as I like to call them, I think he would probably surmise that it’s my new oven that is causing the challenges, and that I just need to get more friendly with it, in order for me to see more consistent results. Well, funny you should say that, Chad, because I actually baked about 10 test loaves at different temps with that very same thought. I have concluded after much practice: I don’t think therein lies the answer. But…that said, if any of my readers have any experience with baking in a Bosch oven, please let me know. We had a Fridgidaire our first year here, and it was excellent, but it quickly konked out. Too much baking!

Scenario #2: Could it be the hydration? I have been baking for over a year now, and I stay pretty consistent with my hydration percentages. Usually I am at about 85-90% hydration. In the beginning, I thought perhaps that was too high, so I lowered it to 75% (since that’s what Chad and other bakers suggest when you are first starting out), but that yielded tough dough and it still wasn’t cooking through. I have tried longer auto-lysing times and proofing times, which I do think helps, but I still have a bit of trouble with the “doneness” factor. Hmmm. I study books, I ask questions of those favorite bakers of mine that I follow on Instagram, I keep practicing.  Some days I get this gorgeous loaf, with a great oven spring, totally cooked through.  Usually this is when it is just for us.  If it is for someone else, maybe it isn’t as stellar.  I guess that’s just part of the challenge!

Scenario #3: The Starter.  Lately I have been playing with my sourdough starter a bit.  I was just using regular old Bob’s Red Mill Organic Hard White Wheat for some time, maybe 6 months.  That was getting me very good results.  But then I started wondering: if I used the more nutrient dense grains like spelt and teff, would my loaf ultimately be more nutritious? Since the yeasts would be taking on more life, so to speak? So lately I have been adding some teff into the mix each day.  And YES, it certainly does change the taste and give it more of a “wow” factor! And since teff is highest in iron, I feel like I am helping my customers that much more by giving them even higher nutrition. That is a great feeling! I should add though that because teff is extremely high in vitamins, it is therefore extremely active, so it must be fed more regularly, or it can grow thin and sour faster than others.  It also creates more “hootch” on the top of the yeast. I always pour that off, because to me it is too acidic, and doesn’t lend to great flavor. Nancy Silverton may disagree.  I believe I read in one of her books that she mixes it in. Hey, to each their own! Whatever works for you!

At the end of the day, the reason I bake becomes clearer and clearer to me. It poses a challenge for me. A puzzle, if you will. Because I may fail a few times on my way up that mountain, but when I get up there, to the summit, the peak, I am stunned by the utter beauty of the view. Awestruck is the word. And I suppose that is what makes all of the questions and the time spent worth it. I mean, isn’t that what life is all about? We struggle, we may fail, but ultimately, we will succeed if we take action and are determined to figure out the “how” and the “why.”  There is a Taoist saying that comes to mind, “there is no such thing as a straight line in nature.” Whether it be baking bread, or studying for a big exam, or teaching your kid how to ride a bike; it will never be easy. It is impossible, according to Taoist thought. Not to be Debbie-Downer, but it’s true. The challenge is where the stress can often be. The feeling that you want to give up. We have all been there. But it can also be a reminder to breath, to stay present, to accept, and most importantly, to keep on baking.

Bread 4.15

My latest boule. Very happy with the inside. Crust is a bit dark, but definitely tasty.

mountain pic

The view from Mount Otake in Japan. Unbelievably beautiful.

Japanese Bakery

K’s Oven in Fukuoka, Japan. the Japanese know how to eat! But they are a bit heavy on the sugar in their breads for me, personally. Although, Chad Robertson just opened a Tartine Tokyo last week, so I am sure the sourdough spark will ignite quickly, and there will be many new bakers!